By A. Storm
By James E. McClellan,Harold Dorn
By Edward Grant
By W.H. Dennis
By Richard Lanyon
To opposite the circulation of a river would not be attainable this day, yet to Chicago close to the top of the 19th century it turned an issue of survival.
at the shorelines of Lake Michigan, attached to the nice Lakes process, with the Chicago River and straightforward waterway entry to the increasing American West, Chicago had a lot that used to be excellent within the approach of water for a burgeoning city within the 1800s. It additionally had a flat topography and bad drainage.
because the urban swelled, railroads changed water shipping, the inhabitants surged, and the lake served either as water offer and sewage repository.
The Chicago River grew to become crushed with the trade of a port urban and its citizens' sewage. It stank every now and then. lethal, waterborne illnesses have been spreading. Flooding from the inner tore in the course of the urban to get to the lake. What to do?
with out sewage therapy, it was once made up our minds to breach a subcontinental divide, ship the sewage away, and store the lake. the belief acquired legislative approval with the promise of a navigable canal.
within the greatest municipal earth-moving undertaking ever at that point--an engineering surprise and a enormous public works success--the movement of the Chicago River used to be became clear of Lake Michigan in 1900. Chicago s personal shoulder-to-the-wheel selection made it paintings.
writer Richard Lanyon is the previous govt director of the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of higher Chicago.
seriously illustrated with ancient photos.
By Graham Hollister-Short,Frank James
By Hendrik Willen Van Loon,Ernesto Sabatini
By B.J.G. van der Kooij
the diversity of innovations that resulted in the electrical telegraph starts off with the preliminary study of 2 Germans within the 1830s: Gauss and Weber. quickly experimental telegraphs constructed on each side of the Atlantic (i.e., Morse within the US and Cooke & Wheatstone in England) introduced a number of a long time of explosive company progress, fueled via fierce festival, a flurry of mergers and acquisitions, and the evolution of a big infrastructure of telegraph traces and places of work.
yet those advancements are just a part of the tale. In his broad research, van der Kooij lays out a richly textured tapestry of forces that weave jointly to shape the context for the improvement of telegraphic conversation. through focusing in on what drives inventive participants, he bargains a special point of view at the interaction among technological innovation and social-economic change.
Telegraphic verbal exchange begun with using the Semaphore within the first a part of the 19th century. An age that observed the French Revolution and its aftermath engulf Europe. the outline of this era illuminates the context for the discovery of the Telegraph.
By E. R. Truitt
A thousand years ahead of Isaac Asimov set down his 3 legislation of Robotics, genuine and imagined automata seemed in ecu courts, liturgies, and literary texts. Medieval robots took such kinds as conversing statues, mechanical animals, and silent steel guardians; a few served to entertain or teach whereas others played disciplinary or surveillance services. Variously ascribed to artisanal genius, inexplicable cosmic forces, or demonic powers, those extraordinary fabrications raised basic questions about wisdom, nature, and divine goal within the heart Ages.
Medieval Robots recovers the forgotten heritage of fantastical, aspirational, and terrifying machines that captivated Europe in mind's eye and fact among the 9th and fourteenth centuries. E. R. Truitt strains different varieties of self-moving or self-sustaining synthetic items from their earliest appearances within the Latin West via centuries of mechanical and literary invention. Chronicled in romances and music in addition to histories and encyclopedias, medieval automata have been strong cultural gadgets that probed the boundaries of normal philosophy, illuminated and challenged definitions of lifestyles and dying, and epitomized the transformative and perilous strength of international wisdom and tradition. This unique and wide-ranging learn finds the convergence of technology, know-how, and mind's eye in medieval tradition and demonstrates the amazing similarities among medieval and sleek robot and cybernetic visions.
By Clarence L. Johnson,Maggie Smith
From the alternate Paperback edition.